Digital halftoning is a printing technology that creates the illusion of continuous tone images for printing devices such as electrophotographic printers that can only produce a limited number of tone levels. Digital halftoning works because the human visual system has limited spatial resolution which blurs the printed dots of the halftone image, creating the gray sensation of a continuous tone image. Because the printing process is imperfect it introduces distortions to the halftone image. The quality of the printed image depends, among other factors, on the complex interactions between the halftone image, the printer characteristics, the colorant, and the printing substrate. Printer models are used to assist in the development of new types of halftone algorithms that are designed to withstand the effects of printer distortions. For example, model-based halftone algorithms optimize the halftone image through an iterative process that integrates a printer model within the algorithm. The two main goals of a printer model are to provide accurate estimates of the tone and of the spatial characteristics of the printed halftone pattern. Various classes of printer models, from simple tone calibrations, to complex mechanistic models, have been reported in the literature. Existing models have one or more of the following limiting factors: they only predict tone reproduction, they depend on the halftone pattern, they require complex calibrations or complex calculations, they are printer specific, they reproduce unrealistic dot structures, and they are unable to adapt responses to new data. The two research objectives of this dissertation are (1) to introduce a new framework for printer modeling and (2) to demonstrate the feasibility of such a framework in building an electrophotographic printer model. The proposed framework introduces the concept of modeling a printer as a texture transformation machine. The basic premise is that modeling the texture differences between the output printed images and the input images encompasses all printing distortions. The feasibility of the framework was tested with a case study modeling a monotone electrophotographic printer. The printer model was implemented as a bank of feed-forward neural networks, each one specialized in modeling a group of textural features of the printed halftone pattern. The textural features were obtained using a parametric representation of texture developed from a multiresolution decomposition proposed by other researchers. The textural properties of halftone patterns were analyzed and the key texture parameters to be modeled by the bank were identified. Guidelines for the multiresolution texture decomposition and the model operational parameters and operational limits were established. A method for the selection of training sets based on the morphological properties of the halftone patterns was also developed. The model is fast and has the capability to continue to learn with additional training. The model can be easily implemented because it only requires a calibrated scanner. The model was tested with halftone patterns representing a range of spatial characteristics found in halftoning. Results show that the model provides accurate predictions for the tone and the spatial characteristics when modeling halftone patterns individually and it provides close approximations when modeling multiple halftone patterns simultaneously. The success of the model justifies continued research of this new printer model framework.
Library of Congress Subject Headings
Electrophotography--Computer simulation; Printing--Computer simulation; Image processing--Digital techniques
Department, Program, or Center
Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science (COS)
Colón-López, Fermín A., "A New framework for an electrophotographic printer model" (2010). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from
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