A new technology (convex mirrors) used for radiometric and spatial characterization of remote sensing imaging systems has demonstrated equal, but unique results when compared to Lambertian targets for vicarious calibration. Using convex mirrors to characterize the radiometric and spatial response of hyperspectral and multispectral imaging systems has yet to be thoroughly investigated for drone-based platforms. When imaged, a convex mirror produces a known radiant intensity source that can characterizes the radiometric and spatial performance of an imaging system. The simultaneous assessment supports a unique understanding of the hyperspectral and multispectral instrument’s response for vicarious characterization. Assessing a new technique for vicarious characterization of imaging systems requires thorough comparison to traditional methods. The Empirical Line Method (ELM) uses Lambertian panels to characterize an imaging systems response to varying surface reflectances for radiometric calibration. The slanted edge method for extracting the spatial response of imaging systems also uses Lambertian panels to form a high contrast edge. Spatial performance characterization defines the smallest spatial feature that can be observed and assists in the discovery of poorly focused or highly distorted optical configurations. The research findings indicate that convex mirrors provide a novel technique to extract new information when deployed for drone-based field experiments. The reflected sunlight produces a broadband point source for characterizing the spatial misregistration of HSI systems without the need to oversample an edge target. More importantly, the reflected sunlight from a convex mirror is defined in a closed-form radiometric expression that can easily be used to validate the small target radiometric performance of imaging systems. Small target performance of HSI systems has drastic consequences for sub-pixel target detection and spectral unmixing. Further discoveries unveiled the inconsistent radiometric performance of a well-calibrated HSI system to point targets in the presence of platform motion and orthorectification.

Publication Date


Document Type


Student Type


Degree Name

Imaging Science (Ph.D.)

Department, Program, or Center

Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science


College of Science


Emmett J. Ientilucci

Advisor/Committee Member

Agamemnon L. Crassidis


RIT – Main Campus