A method of incorporating statistically designed fractional factorial experiments into lithographic process simulation software (PROL1TH/2) has been used to determine input factor interrelationships inherent within a lithographic process. Rotatable Box-Behnken designs with 3 centerpoints were utilized for the experiment. The response surface methodology (RSM) approach was used to analyze the influence of independent factors on a dependant response, and optimize each process. A "method of steepest ascent" was utilized to produce first-order models, which were verified by lack of fit testing. As optimum operating points were approached, a second-order model was fitted and analyzed. A series of experiments studying the effects of prebake, exposure, post-exposure bake, and development on critical dimension and profile in PROLITH/2 produced response surfaces relating each main factor effect as well as non-linear and interaction effects. Additionally, experiments were conducted to study effects of numerical aperture, coherence, feature size, defocus, and flare on aerial image contrast. Process optimization for the target response value as well as process latitude as it relates to all factors simultaneously was then possible through use of the response surface.

Date of creation, presentation, or exhibit



Copyright 1992 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper are prohibited.

Note: imported from RIT’s Digital Media Library running on DSpace to RIT Scholar Works in February 2014.

Document Type

Conference Paper

Department, Program, or Center

Microelectronic Engineering (KGCOE)


RIT – Main Campus