Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Paperboard packages were tested mechanically to investigate influence of forming forces on torsional, tensile, and compressive deformation. The packages were paperboard trays which were press formed with different pressing forces and blank holder forces. Deformation of the trays was observed with torsion, compression, and tensile tests. A statistical analysis of test results was conducted to derive optimal forming forces. Increased pressing force yielded desirable deformation characteristics with the trays. Blank holder force had largest impact on the compressive deformation. Interaction of the pressing force and the blank holder force influenced the torsional and the compressive deformation. The optimal forming forces changed compression force of the trays by +38.2%, tensile force by +4.9%, and torsion angle by -5.4% in comparison to mean of the test results. Effects of the forming forces on microscale changes in the material were discussed. Optimisation of the forming forces was concluded to enhance strength, stiffness, and usability of the trays.