The miniaturization trend in electronics has spurred the development of efficient thermal management solutions. Single phase techniques are reliable but are limited by large fluid temperature differences and pressure drop. Two phase cooling has very little pressure drop with large heat absorption capacity. Boiling stands out as one of the most effective methods of heat dissipation which utilizes phase change. However, the design of two-phase systems is limited by the critical heat flux condition where a vapor layer prevents the liquid from contacting the heater surface. The current research study is directed towards increasing the CHF and maintaining low wall superheats to design efficient heat removal systems.

In this study, different surface modification techniques are studied with an aim to identify various mechanisms that affect the heat transfer. Different surface enhancements in the form of Circumferential rectangular microchannels(CRM) and fin are used over cylindrical surface. Cylindrical tube with outer diameter of 15 mm was used for testing with water as working fluid. Tubular surface with fin attached performed the best yielding the CHF of 115 W/cm2 at wall superheat of 18oC which translated to an enhancement of 76%. The best performance of 110 W/cm2 at 9 oC without reaching CHF was obtained amongst CRM.

Different mechanisms were identified by analyzing the results from pool boiling experiments. Area enhancement and contact line substantially affected the heat transfer performance in CRM. Area enhancement increased performance by providing additional area for heat transfer. Contact line region has higher heat flux. Single bubble growing over multiple grooves has increased contact line density which increases heat transfer 4

performance. Increment in CHF was obtained by employing any one of these surface enhancements.

High speed imaging enabled to analyze the behavior of bubble after nucleation on the fin surface thus deciphering the flow modulation over the cylindrical surface. Presence of bubble diverter at the bottom surface ensured higher evaporative momentum force towards the cylindrical surface. This displaced nucleating bubble at the bottom away from the fin, enabling liquid to rewet the surface. This allowed the formation of separate liquid vapor pathways which resulted in increased performance.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Heat sinks (Electronics); Heat exchangers; Heat--Transmission; Ebullition

Publication Date


Document Type


Student Type


Degree Name

Mechanical Engineering (MS)

Department, Program, or Center

Mechanical Engineering (KGCOE)


Satish G. Kandlikar

Advisor/Committee Member

Agamemnon Crassidis

Advisor/Committee Member

Michael Schrlau


RIT – Main Campus

Plan Codes