This research examines how well New York State’s Gun Involved Violence Elimination (GIVE) initiative aligns with four theoretical domains: subculture of violence, deterrence, rational choice/situational crime prevention, and implementation theories. It reviews how procedural justice and community integration align with these theories and the evidence-based strategies that GIVE sites implement. Sites are grouped for analysis, and their characteristics are described. The literature review describes each theoretical domain’s core principles as they pertain to GIVE. It shows that the theories can be compatible and that their integration is difficult but would likely make the initiative more effective. The primary research questions pertain to how closely GIVE aligns with each of these theories, as well as whether sites with similar characteristics utilize these theoretical perspectives differently. The data collection and analysis methods are described. The analysis finds that theories and strategies that readily align with traditional law enforcement functions are the most likely to be fully adopted by law enforcement agencies, so street outreach strategies tend to be under-utilized while deterrence strategies are most embraced. Larger sites with higher shooting rates tend to have more comprehensive GIVE programs and align better with theory due to having gun violence problems characterized by subcultures of violence and other principles on which the strategies are built. However, medium sized sites tend to deliver strategies with effective dosage; larger sites struggle to deliver enough resources. GIVE implementation could be improved with more integration among strategies, community integration, and deeper recognition of the theoretical insights presented here.

Publication Date


Document Type

Master's Project

Student Type


Degree Name

Criminal Justice (MS)

Department, Program, or Center

Department of Criminal Justice (CLA)


Jason Scott


RIT – Main Campus