As supply voltages continue to decrease, it becomes harder to ensure that the voltage drop across a diode-connected BJT is sufficient to conduct current without sacrificing die area. One such solution to this potential problem is the diode-connected MOSFET operating in weak inversion. In addition to conducting appreciable current at voltages significantly lower than the power supply, the diode-connected MOSFET reduces the total area for the bandgap implementation. Reference voltage variations across Monte Carlo perturbations are more pronounced as the variation of process parameters are exponentially affected in subthreshold conduction. In order for this proposed solution to be feasible, a design methodology was introduced to mitigate the effects of process variation. A 14 nm bandgap reference was created and simulated across Monte Carlo perturbations for 100 runs at nominal supply voltage and 10% variation of the power supply in either direction. The best case reference voltage was found and used to verify the proposed resistive network solution. The average temperature coefficient was measured to be 66.46 ppm/◦C and the voltage adjustment range was found to be 204.1 mV. The two FinFET subthreshold diodes consume approximately 2.8% of the area of the BJT diode equivalent. Utilizing an appropriate process control technique, subthreshold bandgap references have the potential to overtake traditional BJT-based bandgap architectures in low-power, limited-area applications.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Field-effect transistors; Voltage references

Publication Date


Document Type


Student Type


Degree Name

Electrical Engineering (MS)

Department, Program, or Center

Electrical Engineering (KGCOE)


P. R. Mukund

Advisor/Committee Member

James Moon

Advisor/Committee Member

Mark Indovina


Physical copy available from RIT's Wallace Library at TK7871.95 .P74 2017


RIT – Main Campus

Plan Codes