The physical limitations in the area, power density, and yield restrict the scalability of the single-chip multicore system to a relatively small number of cores. Instead of having a large chip, aggregating multiple smaller chips can overcome these physical limitations. Combining multiple dies can be done either by stacking vertically or by placing side-by-side on the same substrate within a single package. However, in order to be widely accepted, both multichip integration techniques need to overcome significant challenges.
In the horizontally integrated multichip system, traditional inter-chip I/O does not scale well with technology scaling due to limitations of the pitch. Moreover, to transfer data between cores or memory components from one chip to another, state-of-the-art inter-chip communication over wireline channels require data signals to travel from internal nets to the peripheral I/O ports and then get routed over the inter-chip channels to the I/O port of the destination chip. Following this, the data is finally routed from the I/O to internal nets of the target chip over a wireline interconnect fabric. This multi-hop communication increases energy consumption while decreasing data bandwidth in a multichip system. On the other hand, in vertically integrated multichip system, the high power density resulting from the placement of computational components on top of each other aggravates the thermal issues of the chip leading to degraded performance and reduced reliability. Liquid cooling through microfluidic channels can provide cooling capabilities required for effective management of chip temperatures in vertical integration. However, to reduce the mechanical stresses and at the same time, to ensure temperature uniformity and adequate cooling competencies, the height and width of the microchannels need to be increased. This limits the area available to route Through-Silicon-Vias (TSVs) across the cooling layers and make the co-existence and co-design of TSVs and microchannels extreamly challenging.
Research in recent years has demonstrated that on-chip and off-chip wireless interconnects are capable of establishing radio communications within as well as between multiple chips. The primary goal of this dissertation is to propose design principals targeting both horizontally and vertically integrated multichip system to provide high bandwidth, low latency, and energy efficient data communication by utilizing mm-wave wireless interconnects. The proposed solution has two parts: the first part proposes design methodology of a seamless hybrid wired and wireless interconnection network for the horizontally integrated multichip system to enable direct chip-to-chip communication between internal cores. Whereas the second part proposes a Wireless Network-on-Chip (WiNoC) architecture for the vertically integrated multichip system to realize data communication across interlayer microfluidic coolers eliminating the need to place and route signal TSVs through the cooling layers. The integration of wireless interconnect will significantly reduce the complexity of the co-design of TSV based interconnects and microchannel based interlayer cooling. Finally, this dissertation presents a combined trade-off evaluation of such wireless integration system in both horizontal and vertical sense and provides future directions for the design of the multichip system.
Library of Congress Subject Headings
Multichip modules (Microelectronics); Wireless communication systems
Computing and Information Sciences (Ph.D.)
Satish G. Kandlikar
Shamim, Md Shahriar, "Overcoming the Challenges for Multichip Integration: A Wireless Interconnect Approach" (2017). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from
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