High blood pressure blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and affects almost one-third of the U.S. adult population. Historical cuff-less non-invasive techniques used to monitor blood pressure are not accurate and highlight the need for first principal models. The first model is a one-dimensional model for pulse wave velocity (PWV) propagation in compliant arteries that accounts for nonlinear fluids in a linear elastic thin walled vessel. The results indicate an inverse quadratic relationship (R^2=.99) between ejection time and PWV, with ejection time dominating the PWV shifts (12%). The second model predicts the general relationship between PWV and blood pressure with a rigorous account of nonlinearities in the fluid dynamics, blood vessel elasticity, and finite dynamic deformation of a membrane type thin anisotropic wall. The nonlinear model achieves the best match with the experimental data. To retrieve individual vascular information of a patient, the inverse problem of hemodynamics is presented, calculating local orthotropic hyperelastic properties of the arterial wall. The final model examines the impact of the thick arterial wall with different material properties in the radial direction. For a hypertensive subject the thick wall model provides improved accuracy up to 8.4% in PWV prediction over its thin wall counterpart. This translates to nearly 20% improvement in blood pressure prediction based on a PWV measure. The models highlight flow velocity is additive to the classic pressure wave, suggesting flow velocity correction may be important for cuff-less, non-invasive blood pressure measures. Systolic flow correction of the measured PWV improves the R2 correlation to systolic blood pressure from 0.81 to 0.92 for the mongrel dog study, and 0.34 to 0.88 for the human subjects study. The algorithms and insight resulting from this work can enable the development of an integrated microsystem for cuff-less, non-invasive blood pressure monitoring.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Blood pressure--Measurement; Heart beat--Mathematical models

Publication Date


Document Type


Student Type


Degree Name

Microsystems Engineering (Ph.D.)

Department, Program, or Center

Microsystems Engineering (KGCOE)


David A. Borkholder

Advisor/Committee Member

Alexander S. Liberson

Advisor/Committee Member

Steven W. Day


Physical copy available from RIT's Wallace Library at QP105.2 .L56 2017


RIT – Main Campus

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