Ensuring vaccine affordability and accessibility are major challenges for the fulfillment of the immunization goals of the Global Vaccine Action Plan for the decade 2011 – 2020. Four of the five immunization goals in this plan are currently delayed because of limitations in vaccine affordability. The use of combination vaccines can help to make vaccines more accessible as long as their pricing becomes more affordable. Procurement mechanisms, such as tiered pricing and pooled procurement, have generally been used for reducing the cost of vaccine purchases, but they have not been used to ensure overall market affordability. This study extends the Antigen Bundle Pricing Problem to analyze a coordinated vaccine market and understand the effects on vaccine affordability of three factors: uncertainty regarding vaccine reservation prices, number of market segments in which customers are grouped, and the interest rate at which manufacturers recover their investment. Experimental results show that increasing the number of market segments, in which countries are grouped, positively influences vaccine affordability but reduces overall profit for manufactures. This study proposes strategies to mitigate the impact to manufacturers by determining the optimal market segmentation of target countries while considering limited access to external funding.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Vaccines--Prices--Mathematical models; Vaccines--Economic aspects; Market segmentation

Publication Date


Document Type


Student Type


Degree Name

Industrial and Systems Engineering (MS)

Department, Program, or Center

Industrial and Systems Engineering (KGCOE)


Ruben Proano

Advisor/Committee Member

Katie McConky


Physical copy available from RIT's Wallace Library at RM281 .M37 2015


RIT – Main Campus

Plan Codes