Solid target signatures vary due to geometry, chemical composition and scene radiometry. Although radiative transfer models and function-fit physical models may describe certain targets in limited depth, the ability to incorporate all three of these signature variables is difficult. This work describes a method to simulate the transient signatures of mixed solids and soils by first considering scene geometry that was synthetically created using 3-d physics engines. Through the assignment of spectral data from the Nonconventional Exploitation Factors Data System (NEFDS) and other libraries, synthetic scenes are represented as a chemical mixture of particles. Finally, first principles radiometry is modeled using the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model. With DIRSIG, radiometric and sensing conditions were systematically manipulated to produce goniometric signatures. The implementation of this virtual goniometer allows users to examine how a target bidirectional reflectance function (BRDF) and directional emissivity will change with geometry, composition and illumination direction. The tool described provides geometry flexibility that is unmatched by radiative transfer models. It delivers a discrete method to avoid the significant cost of time and treasure associated with hardware based goniometric data collections.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Remote-sensing images--Mathematical models; Land cover--Remote sensing; Remote sensing--Data processing; Angles (Geometry)--Measurement--Mathematical models

Publication Date


Document Type


Student Type


Degree Name

Imaging Science (Ph.D.)

Department, Program, or Center

Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science (COS)


Carl Salvaggio

Advisor/Committee Member

Charles Bachmann

Advisor/Committee Member

Michael Gartley


Physical copy available from RIT's Wallace Library at G70.4 .C735 2015


RIT – Main Campus

Plan Codes