Specific radars that are designed to radiate electromagnetic (EM) energy into the ground for the purpose of detecting and identifying underground targets are called ground penetrating radars (GPR). High resolution three-dimensional images of the underground environment can be produced using a bistatic, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing technique. Information pertaining to the underground scenario can be extracted from the three-dimensional images through methodical post data analysis.

Theoretical models and proof-of-concept designs are used to validate and advance deep GPR research and development efforts. The theoretical modeling of a deep GPR system is a lucrative method to obtain realistic deep GPR results and analysis. Realistic theoretical deep GPR models must correctly model a GPR system as well as the effects of energy interactions on the deep GPR data. The desire for a realistic deep GPR model is to aid in the ultimate efforts of one day making field deployable and airborne deep GPRs.

Complex energy interactions take place when EM energy propagates through a high dielectric medium creating adverse effects on GPR data. These energy interactions include specular and diffuse reflections, attenuation, and dispersion. A valid theoretical model must be capable of producing realistic joint specular and diffuse reflection at different dielectric boundaries. This thesis proposes and analyzes the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) as a valid specular and diffuse reflectance model used in the generation of realistic GPR data. This thesis also introduces and analyzes the direct path signal and the air-soil interface commonly found in bistatic GPR systems. The efforts of this thesis will provide a realistic GPR model that can be used in the development of more advanced systems.

To assess the validity of the proposed model comprehensive testing and analysis has been completed. Intense analysis of the realistic theoretical model introduced in this thesis included variations in the target's spatial orientation, size, and position. Analysis also examined the validity of the BRDF as a reflectance model along with the modeling of the direct path signal. The model was then compared to known real GPR data. The authentic energy interaction created through the use of the BRDF and incorporation of path attenuation, dispersion, direct path signal, and the air-soil interface has proven to produce acceptable results.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Ground penetrating radar--Mathematical models; Synthetic aperture radar--Mathematical models; Reflectance

Publication Date


Document Type


Student Type


Degree Name

Electrical Engineering (MS)

Department, Program, or Center

Electrical Engineering (KGCOE)


Vincent J. Amuso

Advisor/Committee Member

Sohail A. Dianat

Advisor/Committee Member

Daniel B. Phillips


Physical copy available from RIT's Wallace Library at TK6592.G7 K37 2005


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