This work explores printing uniformity from a quality standpoint. The study proposes a conceptual framework, quantitative models and a testing method for the measurement and analysis of printing uniformity independent from the printing process and press design.
The proposed framework encompasses construct and indicators concerning the printing accuracy and printing precision dimensions of uniformity. The proposed models are derived for each of the indicators in the framework comprising a cohesive set of device- and process-independent image quality metrics (IQMs) for benchmarking and evaluating the spatial-temporal uniformity of printing systems relative to standard industry tolerances. The proposed test method builds on prior efforts on the same topic and borrows from and improves upon related studies by various authors.
Printing uniformity in this work is defined as the theoretical attribute that reflects the extent of variability for a given press. It has significant implications on a range of standards and specifications dealing with process control. This addresses a fundamental challenge in understanding variability in printing rather than focus on cause-effect relationships.
The literature revealed that some aspects of the topic are underexplored with the majority of the works addressing either the spatial or temporal domains independently. Additionally, parallel publications were found with disparate terminologies, which made it hard to find clear definitions of concepts central to the topic.
Five press tests were conducted following the proposed method to help refine the concepts and metrics. They included three presses, including offset lithography and electrophotography. The findings were inline with findings from related studies, showing similarities and differences between printing units, presses, and processes
This work could serve as a template for exploring phenomena using the triple‑tiered approach for devising the concepts, models and methods. Future research on numerous printing systems across processes may provide great value in our understanding printing uniformity. Comprehensive testing across systems and processes creates opportunities for validating or refuting assumptions, which would ensure continuous improvement of quality control practices and ultimately better color consistency in printing.
Library of Congress Subject Headings
Color printing--Quality control; Imaging systems--Image quality
Print Media (MS)
Department, Program, or Center
School of Media Sciences (CIAS)
Abdel Motaal, Saleh A., "Spatiotemporal Variability: Process-Independent Analysis of Printing Uniformity" (2014). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from
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