Data were obtained from the Frieser-Eger1 film on development kinetics for initiation times and for total development times of individual grains (times of complete development) in a lithographic developer and in a hydroquinone developer with normal sulfite level. Approximate areas were computed for each grain. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the process of development at the two sulfite levels and to determine if there is a functional relationship between total development time and grain size. Different relationships were expected for the two types of developers. This data analysis permits a better understanding of the differences between lithographic and normal hydroquinone developers. The data were obtained by observing a number of grains throughout the development process. The film was run through the projector one frame at a time and each frame was counted so that the initiation times and times of complete development could be determined. The location of the grains in question was maintained by means of a grid. The areas were measured using the geometric shape of the individual grains. The shape of some Irregular grains was approximated. There were no functional relationships between grain size and times of complete development or initiation times for the two developers. There was, however, a significant difference between the two developers with respect to Initiation times. The initiation period for the 0.5 g. sulfite developer is shorter than the 20g. sulfite developers initiation period. This difference is believed to be the result of different development mechanisms for the developers. The results of this evaluation are useful only as an example of a possible statistical analysis for films of a similar nature.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Photography--Developing and developers

Publication Date


Document Type


Department, Program, or Center

School of Photographic Arts and Sciences (CIAS)


Carroll, Burt


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