This paper presents several unique "instantaneous center integration" (ICI) algorithms for use in studying unconstrained vehicle motion using computer simulations and animations. Specifically, these algorithms are most appropriate for the case when high angular rates are present, such as would occur during tight cornering and/or possibly during an accident. The three ICI algorithms presented are the "pseudo-exact", first order approximation and the second order approximation. These ICI algorithms are capable of producing valid, accurate, and efficient simulation results, which describe the behavior of a vehicle under these conditions. The "pseudo-exact" is the most accurate, yet the most computationally expensive. The first order approximation is the least accurate and least computationally expensive. The second order approximation's accuracy is close to that of the "pseudo-exact" algorithm yet is much less computationally accurate, and therefore the most appropriate one to use. The ICI algorithms are derived and compared to one another by observing the position errors, the computational intensities, and the actual trajectories for a baseline two-dimensional scenario. This scenario consists of a vehicle traversing a circular path at a constant speed. A practical study of the stability of the algorithm is presented as well. The ICI algorithms introduced in this paper can be useful for producing accurate computer simulations for both the simulation and entertainment fields.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Motor vehicles--Handling characteristics--Computer simulation; Algorithms; Computer animation

Publication Date


Document Type


Department, Program, or Center

Mechanical Engineering (KGCOE)


Hennessey, Michael

Advisor/Committee Member

Walter, Wayne

Advisor/Committee Member

Torok, Joseph


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