This thesis proposes a novel technique for a low supply voltage temperature-independent reference voltage. With the scaling of supply voltages, the threshold voltages don’t scale proportionally and thus low supply reference circuits have replaced the conventional bandgap reference circuit. The first chapter of this work discusses the conventional bandgap references (The Widlar and Brokaw references). The terminology used in the bandgap world is introduced here. The second chapter investigates the existing low supply voltage reference circuits with their advantages and the limitations. A table discussing all the investigated circuits is provided towards the end of the chapter as a summary. Chapter Three proposes a novel technique to generate a temperature-independent voltage which does not use an operational amplifier. This chapter also provides a mathematical understanding for behavior of the circuit. Chapter Four talks about two variations of the proposed architecture. These variations are designed in order to improve the performance of the proposed circuit against power supply variations. Each one of them has its own merits and drawbacks. Finally Chapter Five discusses the effects of process variations and transient response of the proposed circuit. A digital trimming scheme using an EE-PROM is proposed to manage almost all of the process variation effects on the circuit.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Metal oxide semiconductors, Complementary; Low voltage integrated circuits; Equalizers (Electronics); Linear integrated circuits; Electric currents

Publication Date


Document Type


Department, Program, or Center

Electrical Engineering (KGCOE)


Moon, James - Chair

Advisor/Committee Member

Mukund, P.R.

Advisor/Committee Member

Islam, Syed


Note: imported from RIT’s Digital Media Library running on DSpace to RIT Scholar Works. Physical copy available through RIT's The Wallace Library at: TK7871.99.M44 D46 2005


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