An investigation was done on three published expanded equations, that convert (T) to (D). T. Celio, J. Altman and M. Abouelata published equations of the same form, but with differing constants. Their equations were derived by using an assumed square-wave transmittance trace. The investigation was to find the best predictor of (D) from (T) . Both practical and simulation tests were run. The density range was extended, to check for failure at both high and low densities. Standard granularity measurement procedures were followed as close as possible. Results, from the practical tests, showed Altman 's equation the best predictor of (D). Celio's was a close second, while Abouelata's was a distant third. The simulation test, was run with normal distributions and rectangular distributions. Altman's equation best fit both kinds of density distributions, as well as combinations in between the two.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Images, Photographic; Photographic optics

Publication Date


Document Type


Department, Program, or Center

School of Photographic Arts and Sciences (CIAS)


Carson, J.F.


Note: imported from RIT’s Digital Media Library running on DSpace to RIT Scholar Works. Physical copy available through RIT's The Wallace Library at: TR222.C375


RIT – Main Campus