Sandra Stiles


Mathematics education in the United States has long been seen as lacking when compared to the achievements of students in other countries. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) developed a handbook of standards for teachers to follow in hopes of raising the standards of mathematics education. The focus of this paper is on the section for the development of 9-12 standards, specifically, "Standard 2: Mathematics as Communication" (NCTM, 1989). This standard is concerned with the inclusion within high school mathematics curriculum of techniques and activities that promote continued development of language skills used to communicate mathematical ideas. The goal of this thesis is to compare and contrast the ideas on the national level, interpretations and policies of each of the three states, and adoption of said policies by schools, with the actual implementation of policies and techniques used in the classroom. A secondary goal is to investigate the differences, if any, of policies and practices, on all four levels, between public education and deaf education

Publication Date


Document Type

Master's Project

Student Type


Department, Program, or Center

Master of Science of Secondary Education of Students Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (NTID)


Raman, Marie - Chair

Advisor/Committee Member

Bateman, Gerald


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