Robert Gusty


This paper reviewed research related to phonological awareness in deaf and hearing individuals. A number of studies showed that individuals skilled in memory tasks and reading achievement utilize a phonological voice. Often referred to as inner voice or the articulatory loop, phonology was used by both hearing and deaf individuals considered to be skilled readers. The evidence also shows that the use of phonology for coding information is related to the ability to use memory efficiently. As reading achievement is very important in a deaf child's education, so is mathematics. Compared to hearing students, deaf students do not perform at the same academic level in mathematics. While the importance of phonology is known in terms of reading achievement and memory, it is probable that use of the articulatory loop is important in mathematics. This logic led to another potentially important factor of mathematical achievement - mental calculation. Thus, a review of the literature was conducted on the importance of mental calculation and recommended key strategies for teaching mental arithmetic skills.

Publication Date


Document Type

Master's Project

Student Type


Department, Program, or Center

Master of Science of Secondary Education of Students Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (NTID)


Kelly, Ronald - Chair

Advisor/Committee Member

Bateman, Gerald


Note: imported from RIT’s Digital Media Library running on DSpace to RIT Scholar Works in December 2013.


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