It was shown previously that a multi-ink printer can reproduce spectral reflectances within a specified tolerance range using many distinct ink combinations. An algorithm was developed to systematically analyze a printer to determine the amount of multi-ink variability throughout its spectral gamut. The advantage of this algorithm is that any spectral difference metric can be used as the objective function. Based on the results of the analysis for one spectral difference metric, six-dimensional density map displays were constructed to illustrate the amount of spectral redundancy throughout the ink space. One CMYKGO ink-jet printer was analyzed using spectral reflectance factor RMS as the spectral difference metric and selecting 0.02 RMS as the tolerance limit. For these parameters, the degree of spectral matching freedom for the printer reduced to five inks because the chromatic inks were able to reproduce spectra within the 0.02 tolerance limit throughout the printer's gamut. Experiments were designed to exploit spectrally stable multi-ink variability within the analyzed printer. The first experiment used spectral redundancy to visually evaluate spectral difference metrics. Using the developed database of spectrally similar samples allows any spectral difference metric to be compared to a visual response. The second experiment demonstrated the impact of spectral redundancy on spectral color management. Typical color image processing techniques use profiles consisting of sparse multi-dimensional lookup tables that interpolate between adjacent nodes to prepare an image for rendering. It was shown that colorimetric error resulted when interpolating between lookup table nodes that were inconsistent in digital count space although spectrally similar. Finally, the analysis was used to enable spectral watermarking of images. To illustrate the significance of this watermarking technique, information was embedded into three images with varying levels of complexity. Prints were made verifying that information could be hidden while preserving the visual and spectral integrity of the original image.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Color printing; Imaging systems; Color computer printers; Colorimetry

Publication Date


Document Type


Department, Program, or Center

Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science (COS)


Ohta, Noboru


Note: imported from RIT’s Digital Media Library running on DSpace to RIT Scholar Works. Physical copy available through RIT's The Wallace Library at: Z258 .H387 2003


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