Liquid metal jetting is an additive manufacturing process where molten metal is ejected and deposited droplet by droplet to build a three-dimensional part. Liquid metal jetting provides significant advantages over powder-based metal additive processes in terms of faster printing time and less material wastage. The option of using feedstock material in wire form also makes the use of this process less complicated than powder-based processes. At the time of this writing, the only commercially available non-contact liquid metal jetting system is the ElemX machine sold by Xerox. The ElemX uses magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) droplet jetting technology (also termed Magnetojet) to eject metal droplets. The ElemX can currently reliably print aluminum 4008 and 4043 alloys. Future upgrades are targeted to support additional aluminum alloys. The aluminum alloy used for printing is supplied to the machine in wire form. This thesis aims at understanding and characterizing properties of 4008 aluminum material deposited using the ElemX's magnetohydrodynamic droplet jetting process. Aluminum 4008 alloy, which is equivalent to Al-Si-Mg-Ti A356 aluminum casting alloy, has been used for printing in all experiments. Parts were fabricated using different levels of printing parameters (such as bed temperature, frequency, and droplet overlap) to understand how these parameters affect print quality. Most 3D printing processes exhibit anisotropy in the material properties. ASTM E8 standard tensile coupons were printed in different orientations using the ElemX machine and were then tested for mechanical properties. The density of the parts was also measured, and an attempt was made to establish a relationship between build height, the top surface temperature, and porosity.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Aluminum alloys; Additive manufacturing; Liquid metals; Magnetohydrodynamics

Publication Date


Document Type


Student Type


Degree Name

Industrial and Systems Engineering (MS)

Department, Program, or Center

Industrial and Systems Engineering (KGCOE)


Denis R. Cormier

Advisor/Committee Member

Iris Rivero


This thesis has been embargoed. The full-text will be available on or around 8/25/2024.


RIT – Main Campus

Plan Codes


Available for download on Saturday, August 24, 2024