The present study investigated binary transgender (BT) and non-binary (NB) individuals both as an entire transgender non-binary (TNB) group and as two separate groups to examine entire group mental health trends and discern differences in mental health problems between groups. Outness, agency, experiences of transgender identity based microaggressions, and internalized transphobia in particular were investigated in relation to mental health. This study was conducted via an online survey and included 34 BT participants and 58 NB participants (92 participants in total). The correlation matrices and ANCOVAs revealed that none of the study hypotheses were supported. However, it was found that the BT group reported being more out and having higher levels of internalized transphobia than the NB group. Additionally, in post-hoc analyses, a negative correlation was found between outness and internalized transphobia, and a positive correlation was found between experiences of microaggressions and mental health problems. These results may in part be due to the unique TNB community the sample drew from, in addition to the lack of prior literature to draw from. More research on this topic should be conducted considering these contradictory findings, especially comparing BT and NB individuals. Future research on the topic should be used to help create more inclusive care practices and inform policy and legislation related to TNB individuals.
Library of Congress Subject Headings
Gender-nonconforming people--Psychology; Transgender people--Psychology; Gender-nonconforming people--Identity; Transgender people--Identity; Microaggressions--Psychological aspects
Experimental Psychology (MS)
Department, Program, or Center
Gibbs, Beau M., "Outness among Transgender and Non-Binary Adults: Effects of Identity and Agency on Mental Health" (2023). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from
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