This paper discusses changes in juvenile justice policy, focusing largely on the last 40 years. Juvenile justice policy has historically transitioned quickly from conservative punitive strategies to liberal rehabilitative and lenient strategies. We see this most recently with the tough on crime strategies of the 1990s lowering the age of responsibility to now where states have decided to start raising the age of criminal responsibility up to 18 years old. This paper looks closely at what caused this most recent shift and gives historical context as to how juvenile justice policy trends may have predicted this.
Criminal Justice (MS)
Department, Program, or Center
Department of Criminal Justice (CLA)
Xitco, Mary, "The Pendulum of Juvenile Justice Policy: Examining the Creation and Implementation of New York State’s Raise the Age Legislation" (2022). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from
RIT – Main Campus