Millions of tons of wastage are produced every year ending up in landfills or burn and causing an environmental problem as they threaten the health of creatures and cause resources depletion. 44% of wastage is organic waste, which is biodegradable. However, 17% and 12% of wastage are paper and plastic respectively, and both are non-degradable. Thus, the comprehensive solution is to recycle them. A suggested solution is to recycle them into wood plastic composite. Up to 90% of WPC raw material is a recycled material, and the final product is 100% recyclable. WPC is comparatively less energy-consuming than other substitute materials as WPC is formed at 180°C, while others need up to 1200°C. In 1990, WPC has emerged in Italy, and it gained its quadruple growth in 2000. By 2024, WPC is expected to reach sales of 8.2 billion $ in market with an annual growth rate of 9.3%. WPC is a thermoplastic reinforced with wood flour. Wood flour has the lowest gravity weight compared to other reinforcing materials, and it enhances modulus of elasticity of the final product. WPC contains 50% recycled wood flour, 40% recycled thermoplastic, and 10% additives. Its formula percentage depends on its intended application. WPC components may receive several types of treatments; chemical treatments to facilitate the production process and improve the final product characteristics; thermal, energetic, and Corona treatments to enhance bonding between plastic and wood particles. Market analysis shows WPC is a prospective product with multiple applications, as it overcomes substitute materials in many points such as being splinter free, easy to install, lightweight, natural-looking, cost efficient, timeless guaranteed, environmentally friendly, recyclable, fire retardant, weather-resistant, anti-fungus, and nontoxic. Egypt consumes 38% of the softwood market in the Middle East, and this study shows that manufacturing WPC in Egypt is a profitable project.

Publication Date


Document Type

Master's Project

Student Type


Degree Name

Engineering Management (ME)

Department, Program, or Center

Industrial and Systems Engineering (KGCOE)


Ghalib Kahwaji

Advisor/Committee Member

Slim Saidi


RIT Dubai