An observer metamerism quantification method to describe the potentiality of observer metamerism of any stimulus pairs with respect to the population variation of color-normal observers is introduced. The method is further extended for use in quantifying the observer metamerism capability of any lighting system or a system-primary combination. A dual seven-primary lighting system is constructed to create customized lighting stimuli for a better demonstration of observer metamerism. The multi-primary lighting system was verified to have crucial advantages over conventional displays/projectors to probe observer metamerism through the generation of individualized metameric color stimuli and a set of stimuli pairs that either maximize or minimize observer metamerism for color-normal populations. The system also offers sufficient spectral variability to approximate the spectral power distribution of a variety of standard illuminants and becomes a great tool for color research and education. As a step towards color-matching function characterization of individual observers, fifteen sets of metamers exhibiting high degrees of observer variability are created using the multi-primary system for an observer categorization test. The test is simulated for 10 000 Monte Carlo observers considering the current global pandemic and the result confirms the feasibility of conducting human subject research and offers insights in creating a set of stimulus pairs for the color matching functions characterization of individual observers, a so-called observer calibrator.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Color vision--Data processing; Colorimetry; Visual perception

Publication Date


Document Type


Student Type


Degree Name

Color Science (MS)


Mark D. Fairchild

Advisor/Committee Member

Michael J. Murdoch


RIT – Main Campus

Plan Codes