There is an ever-increasing focus on sustainability and energy consumption worldwide. Manufacturing is one of the major areas where energy reduction is not only environmentally beneficial, but also incredibly financially beneficial. These industrial consumers pay for their electricity according to prices that fluctuate throughout the day. These price fluctuations are in place to shift consumption away from “peak” times, when electricity is in the highest demand. In addition to this consumption cost, industrial consumers are charged according to their highest level of demand in a given window of time in the form of demand charges. This paper presents multiple solution methods to solve a parallel machine shop scheduling problem to minimize the total energy cost of the production schedule under Time of Use (TOU) and demand charge pricing. The greedy heuristic and genetic algorithm developed are designed to provide efficient solutions to this problem. The results of these methods are compared to a previously developed integer program (IP) solved using CPLEX with respect to the quality of the solution and the computational time required to solve it. Findings of these tests show that the greedy heuristic handles the test problems with only a small optimality gap to the genetic algorithm and optimal IP solution. The largest test problems could not be solved by the genetic algorithm in the provided time period due to difficulty generating an initial solution population. However, when successful the genetic algorithm performed comparably to the CPLEX solver in terms solution quality yet provided faster solve times.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Production scheduling--Data processing; Production planning--Data processing; Computer algorithms--Evaluation; Manufacturing industries--Energy consumption

Publication Date


Document Type


Student Type


Degree Name

Industrial and Systems Engineering (MS)

Department, Program, or Center

Industrial and Systems Engineering (KGCOE)


Katie McConky

Advisor/Committee Member

Yunbo Zhang


RIT – Main Campus

Plan Codes