This study draws on design-based research on an ARIS–based mobile augmented reality game for teaching early 20th century history. New design principles derived from the study include the use of supra-reveals, and bias mirroring. Supra-reveals are a kind of foreshadowing event in order to ground historical happenings in the wider enduring historical understanding. Bias mirroring refers to a nonplayer character echoing back a player’s biased behavior, in order to open the player to listening to alternative perspectives. Supra-reveals engendered discussion of historical themes early in the game experience. The results showed that use of a cluster of NPC bias mirroring techniques enhanced student ability to articulate points of view previously unavailable to them.

Date of creation, presentation, or exhibit



Presented at the (Games Learning Society) GLS12 Conference, Madison, Wisconsin, August 17-19, 2016.

Document Type

Conference Paper

Department, Program, or Center

School of Interactive Games and Media (GCCIS)


RIT – Main Campus