Henry Etlinger


In many introductory programming courses, students are urged to trace programs in a textbook to see if they understand how the programs work. In addition, students may have to trace simple programs on a test (a typical question calls for a display of a program's output). As a student confronts more and more complex language features, and as examples become more lengthy, the tracing idea seems to fall by the wayside. We expect a student to understand complex programs, but we don't seem to offer any practical guidance about how this understanding may be achieved.

Date of creation, presentation, or exhibit


Document Type

Conference Paper

Department, Program, or Center

Computer Science (GCCIS)


RIT – Main Campus