As resist image responses vary with duty ratio, the identification of a particularly challenging instance leads to its classification as a “forbidden pitch.” The increased application of various RET methods has often resulted in the misuse of this label for anything unexplained by linear effects. This paper attempts to dispel the myths regarding the imaging variations that occur with pitch. Furthermore, by describing the basis of these behaviors, insight is provided for the appropriate design of mask, illumination, OPC, and exposure parameters to best accommodate a broad range of duty ratio values.

Date of creation, presentation, or exhibit



Copyright 2003 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper are prohibited.

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Document Type

Conference Paper

Department, Program, or Center

Microelectronic Engineering (KGCOE)


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