In this paper we will examine the effect of obscuration upon the various features we desired to image with a 157nm microstepper utilising a catadioptric lens. We will show the effect the obscuration has upon imaging when using not only conventional illumination and binary masks, but also when using a range of enhancement techniques such as off-axis illumination and phase-shifting masks. We will show how use of a large obscuration, whilst enhancing the signals for the densest features, actually degrades the signal for more isolated features. The level of obscuration must also take into account cross duty-ratio effects, i.e. the distribution of diffraction energy, for phase shifted features of various sizes. In this situation where a small sigma would be used a large level of obscuration can significantly increase biases. The choice of obscuration can have a major effect upon the imaging capabilities of a tool. In future, when the use of catadioptric lenses may be more widespread (for example this may happen at 157nm) it may be desirable to have the option to vary this obscuration dependant upon the pattern being imaged.

Date of creation, presentation, or exhibit



Copyright 2001 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper are prohibited.

Note: imported from RIT’s Digital Media Library running on DSpace to RIT Scholar Works in February 2014.

Document Type

Conference Paper

Department, Program, or Center

Microelectronic Engineering (KGCOE)


RIT – Main Campus