Movements of the surface of a liquid and convection currents within the liquid during heating and cooling are shown simultaneously using a dual reflection-refraction photographic schlieren system. Means are furnished for identifying and measuring hills and valleys and correlating these with rising and descending streams within the liquid. Two models are selected, melted paraffin wax and isopropyl alcohol, the latter evaporating quietly into its pure vapor, with air excluded.
Department, Program, or Center
School of Photographic Arts and Sciences (CIAS)
Davidhazy, Andrew, "Photographic demonstration of surface and interior conditions of an unevenly heated liquid" (1969). Society of Photographic Scientists and Engineers: SPSE Journal, vol. 13 (),Accessed from
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