Movements of the surface of a liquid and convection currents within the liquid during heating and cooling are shown simultaneously using a dual reflection-refraction photographic schlieren system. Means are furnished for identifying and measuring hills and valleys and correlating these with rising and descending streams within the liquid. Two models are selected, melted paraffin wax and isopropyl alcohol, the latter evaporating quietly into its pure vapor, with air excluded.

Publication Date



The operational techniques other than photographic have been made available to me from the laboratory. I thank Dr. K. Hickman for direction and assistance in preparing this paper. This work was performed under grant from the Office of Saline Water, U.S. Department of the Interior. Article also available at: http://www.rit.edu/~andpph/articles.html Note: imported from RIT’s Digital Media Library running on DSpace to RIT Scholar Works in February 2014.

Document Type


Department, Program, or Center

School of Photographic Arts and Sciences (CIAS)


RIT – Main Campus